Where to buy eth


elliptic curve digital signature algorithm (ECDSA)

A cryptographic algorithm used by Ethereum to ensure that funds can only be spent by their owners. It’s the preferred method for creating public and private keys. Relevant for account generation and verification.


A period of 32 (6.4 minutes) in the -coordinated system. are shuffled every epoch for security reasons. There’s an opportunity at each epoch for the chain to be .

Ethereum Improvement Proposal (EIP)

A design document providing information to the Ethereum community, describing a proposed new feature or its processes or environment (see ).

Introduction to EIPs

Ethereum Name Service (ENS)

The ENS registry is a single central that provides a mapping from domain names to owners and resolvers, as described in 137.


In the context of cryptography, lack of predictability or level of randomness. When generating secret information, such as , algorithms usually rely on a source of high entropy to ensure the output is unpredictable.

A label given to some that attempt to define a specific standard of Ethereum usage.

Introduction to EIPs


The native cryptocurrency used by the Ethereum ecosystem, which covers costs when executing transactions. Also writen as ETH or its symbol Ξ, the Greek uppercase Xi character.

Currency for our digital future


Allows the use of logging facilities. can listen for events and use them to trigger JavaScript callbacks in the user interface.

Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM)

A stack-based virtual machine that executes . In Ethereum, the execution model specifies how the system state is altered given a series of bytecode instructions and a small tuple of environmental data. This is specified through a formal model of a virtual state machine.

Ethereum Virtual Machine



A network structure meant to optimize the querying of information from across the by providing an efficient path to its storage source.

Inter-exchange Client Address Protocol (ICAP)

An Ethereum address encoding that is partly compatible with the International Bank Account Number (IBAN) encoding, offering a versatile, checksummed, and interoperable encoding for Ethereum addresses. ICAP addresses use a new IBAN pseudo-country code- XE, standing for «eXtended Ethereum,» as used in nonjurisdictional currencies (e.g., XBT, XRP, XCP).

integrated development environment (IDE)

A user interface that typically combines a code editor, compiler, runtime, and debugger.

Integrated Development Environments

immutable deployed code problem

Once a (or ) code is deployed, it becomes immutable. Standard software development practices rely on being able to fix possible bugs and add new features, so this represents a challenge for smart contract development.

Deploying Smart Contracts


Beacon Chain genesis

ethereum.org on waybackmachine


The Beacon Chain needed 16384 deposits of 32 staked ETH to ship securely. This happened on November 27, meaning the Beacon Chain started producing blocks on December 1, 2020. This is an important first step in achieving the Eth2 vision.

The Beacon Chain

Staking deposit contract deployed

ethereum.org on waybackmachine


The staking deposit contract introduced to the Ethereum ecosystem. Although a contract, it had a direct impact on the timeline for launching the Beacon Chain, an important Eth2 upgrade.


Muir Glacier

ethereum.org on waybackmachine


The Muir Glacier fork introduced a delay to the . Increases in block difficulty of the proof-of-work consensus mechanism threatened to degrade the usability of Ethereum by increasing wait times for sending transactions and using dapps.

  • Read the Ethereum Foundation announcement
  • Read the Ethereum Cat Herder’s explainer



Beacon Chain

An Eth2 upgrade that will become the coordinator for the Ethereum network. It introduces and to Ethereum. It will eventually be merged with .

Beacon Chain


A positional number representation where the most significant digit is first in memory. The opposite of little-endian, where the least significant digit is first.


A collection of required information (a block header) about the comprised , and a set of other block headers known as . Blocks are added to the Ethereum network by .



In Ethereum, a sequence of validated by the system, each linking to its predecessor all the way to the . There is no block size limit; it instead uses varying .


An abstract instruction set designed for efficient execution by a software interpreter or a virtual machine. Unlike human-readable source code, bytecode is expressed in numeric format.

Byzantium fork

The first of two for the development stage. It included EIP-649 Metropolis Delay and Block Reward Reduction, where the was delayed by 1 year and the block reward was reduced from 5 to 3 ether.

Enterprise developer resources


Some collaborative efforts to make Ethereum enterprise friendly have been made by different organizations:

  • Enterprise Ethereum Alliance (EEA)
    The EEA enables organizations to adopt and use Ethereum technology in their daily business operations. It empowers the Ethereum ecosystem to develop new business opportunities, drive industry adoption, and learn and collaborate with one another.
    The EEA’s Mainnet working group is a focal point for representatives from businesses who are interested in building on the public Ethereum Mainnet, as well as members of the Ethereum community who would like to support them.
  • Ethereum OASIS Open Project
    The Ethereum OASIS Open Project is an OASIS Open Project that exists to provide a neutral forum for diverse stakeholders to create high-quality specifications that facilitate Ethereum’s longevity, interoperability, and ease of integration. The project intends to develop clear, open standards, high-quality documentation, and shared test suites that facilitate new features and enhancements to the Ethereum protocol.
  • Baseline Project
    The Baseline Protocol is an open source initiative that combines advances in cryptography, messaging, and blockchain to deliver secure and private business processes at low cost via the public Ethereum Mainnet. The protocol enables confidential and complex collaboration between enterprises without leaving any sensitive data on-chain. The Baseline project is a sub-project of the Ethereum OASIS Open Project, and is coordinated by the Baseline Technical Steering Committee.

Products and services

  • Alchemy provides API services and tools for building and monitoring applications on Ethereum
  • Blockapps implementation of the Enterprise Ethereum protocol, tooling and APIs that form the STRATO platform
  • Chainstack mainnet and testnet Ethereum infrastructure hosted in public & isolated customer clouds
  • ConsenSys provides a range of products and tools for building on Ethereum, as well as consulting and custom development services
  • Envision Blockchain provides enterprise focused consulting and development services specializing in Ethereum Mainnet
  • EY OpsChain provides a procurement workflow by issuing RFQ’s, contracts, purchase orders, and invoices across your network of trusted business partners
  • Hyperledger Besu an enterprise focused open-source Ethereum client developed under the Apache 2.0 license and written in Java
  • Infura scalable API access to the Ethereum and IPFS networks
  • Provide infrastructure and APIs for Enterprise Web3 applications
  • Unibright a team of blockchain specialists, architects, developers and consultants with 20+ years of experience in business processes and integration

Tooling and libraries

  • Alethio Ethereum Data Analytics Platform
  • Epirus a platform for developing, deploying and monitoring blockchain applications by Web3 Labs
  • Ernst & Young’s ‘Nightfall’ a toolkit for private transactions
  • EthSigner a transaction signing application to be used with a web3 provider
  • Tenderly a Data Platform providing real-time analytics, alerting and monitoring with support for private networks.
  • Truffle Suite blockchain development suite (Truffle, Ganache, Drizzle)

Scalability solutions

Layer 2 is a set of technologies or systems that run on top of Ethereum (Layer 1), inherit security properties from Layer 1, and provide greater transaction processing capacity (throughput), lower transaction fees (operating cost), and faster transaction confirmations than Layer 1. Layer 2 scaling solutions are secured by Layer 1, but they enable blockchain applications to handle many more users or actions or data than Layer 1 could accommodate. Many of them leverage recent advances in cryptography and zero-knowledge (ZK) proofs to maximize performance and security.

Building your application on top of a Layer 2 scalability solution can help address many of the concerns that have previously driven companies to build on private blockchains, yet retain the benefits of building on Mainnet.

Examples of L2 solutions that are production ready or will be soon include:

  • Optimistic rollups (data on chain, fraud proofs)
    • Optimism
    • Offchain Labs Arbitrum Rollup
    • Fuel Network
  • ZK-rollups (data on chain, ZK validity proofs)
    • Loopring
    • Starkware
    • Matter Labs zkSync
    • Aztec 2.0
  • Validium (data off chain, ZK validity proofs)
    • Starkware
    • Matter Labs zkPorter
  • Plasma (data off chain, fraud proofs)
    • OMG Network
    • Gazelle
    • Matic Network
    • LeapDAO
  • State channels
    • Connext
    • Kchannels
    • Perun
    • Raiden
  • Sidechains
    • Skale
    • POA Network
  • Hybrid solutions that combine properties of multiple categories
    • Offchain Labs Arbitrum SCSC
    • Celer

How do NFTs work?

NFTs are different from ERC-20 tokens, such as DAI or LINK, in that each individual token is completely unique and is not divisible. NFTs give the ability to assign or claim ownership of any unique piece of digital data, trackable by using Ethereum’s blockchain as a public ledger. An NFT is minted from digital objects as a representation of digital or non-digital assets. For example, an NFT could represent:

  • Digital Art:
    • GIFs
    • Collectibles
    • Music
    • Videos
  • Real World Items:
    • Deeds to a car
    • Tickets to a real world event
    • Tokenized invoices
    • Legal documents
    • Signatures
  • Lots and lots more options to get creative with!

An NFT can only have one owner at a time. Ownership is managed through the uniqueID and metadata that no other token can replicate. NFTs are minted through smart contracts that assign ownership and manage the transferability of the NFT’s. When someone creates or mints an NFT, they execute code stored in smart contracts that conform to different standards, such as ERC-721. This information is added to the blockchain where the NFT is being managed. The minting process, from a high level, has the following steps that it goes through:

  • Creating a new block
  • Validating information
  • Recording information into the blockchain

NFT’s have some special properties:

  • Each token minted has a unique identifier that is directly linked to one Ethereum address.
  • They’re not directly interchangeable with other tokens 1:1. For example 1 ETH is exactly the same as another ETH. This isn’t the case with NFTs.
  • Each token has an owner and this information is easily verifiable.
  • They live on Ethereum and can be bought and sold on any Ethereum-based NFT market.

In other words, if you own an NFT:

  • You can easily prove you own it.
    • Proving you own an NFT is very similar to proving you have ETH in your account.
    • For example, let’s say you purchase an NFT, and the ownership of the unique token is transferred to your wallet via your public address.
    • The token proves that your copy of the digital file is the original.
    • Your private key is proof-of-ownership of the original.
    • The content creator’s public key serves as a certificate of authenticity for that particular digital artefact.
    • Another way to think about proving you own the NFT is by signing messages to prove you own the private key behind the address.
      • As mentioned above, your private key is proof-of-ownership of the original. This tells us that the private keys behind that address control the NFT.
      • A signed message can be used as proof that you own your private keys without revealing them to anybody and thus proving you own the NFT as well!
  • No one can manipulate it in any way.
  • You can sell it, and in some cases this will earn the original creator resale royalties.
  • Or, you can hold it forever, resting comfortably knowing your asset is secured by your wallet on Ethereum.

And if you create an NFT:

  • You can easily prove you’re the creator.
  • You determine the scarcity.
  • You can earn royalties every time it’s sold.
  • You can sell it on any NFT market or peer-to-peer. You’re not locked in to any platform and you don’t need anyone to intermediate.


The creator of an NFT gets to decide the scarcity of their asset.

For example, consider a ticket to a sporting event. Just as an organizer of an event can choose how many tickets to sell, the creator of an NFT can decide how many replicas exist. Sometimes these are exact replicas, such as 5000 General Admission tickets. Sometimes several are minted that are very similar, but each slightly different, such as a ticket with an assigned seat. In another case, the creator may want to create an NFT where only one is minted as a special rare collectible.

In these cases, each NFT would still have a unique identifier (like a bar code on a traditional «ticket»), with only one owner. The intended scarcity of the NFT matters, and is up to the creator. A creator may intend to make each NFT completely unique to create scarcity, or have reasons to produce several thousand replicas. Remember, this information is all public.


Some NFTs will automatically pay out royalties to their creators when they’re sold. This is still a developing concept but it’s one of the most powerful. Original owners of EulerBeats Originals earn an 8% royalty every time the NFT is sold on. And some platforms, like Foundation and Zora, support royalties for their artists.

This is completely automatic so creators can just sit back and earn royalties as their work is sold from person to person. At the moment, figuring out royalties is very manual and lacks accuracy – a lot of creators don’t get paid what they deserve. If your NFT has a royalty programmed into it, you’ll never miss out.

Как получить Ethereum в 2021 году?

Рассмотрим 4 основных способа получить Эфириум, актуальные на 2021 год:

  • Биржи криптовалют. На данный момент существует немало действительно работающих и пригодных для использования криптовалютных бирж, полный перечень самых авторитетных криптобирж смотрите в нашем сайте.
  • Облачный майнинг Ethereum — самый доступный и выгодный на сегодняшний день способ получить монеты ETH, за счет покупки контракта сроком на 1-3 года у специализированных дата-центров со специальными фермами для добычи Ethereum. Стоимость контрактов начинается от 2 долларов США.
  • Собрать свою ферму для майнинга с мощными видеокартами. На данной ферме также можно будет добывать и другие криптовалюты. Инструкция по подбору комплекта оборудования и настройке фермы есть у нас на сайте.

ТОП-5 криптовалютных бирж на которых можно купить Ethereum

Для безопасной и удобной покупки Ethereum (ETH) мы подготовили рейтинг самых надежных и популярных криптовалютных бирж, которые поддерживают ввод и вывод средств в рублях, гривнах, долларах и евро.

Надежнее всего площадки с наибольшим оборотом денежных средств, уже несколько лет крупнейшей криптовалютной биржей в мире является Binance. Площадка Binance является самой популярной криптобиржей и на территории СНГ, поскольку имеет максимальные объёмы торгов и поддерживает переводы в рублях с банковских карт Visa/MasterCard и платёжных систем QIWI, Advcash, Payeer.

Критерии по которым выставляется оценка в нашем рейтинге криптобирж:

Сервисы облачного майнинга (аренда мощностей)

Процесс добычи следующий. Вы покупаете скорость (так называемый хешрейт) и начинаете свой майнинг, точнее наблюдаете за ним в личном кабинете на сайте сервиса. Процесс облачного майнинга полностью автоматичен и контролировать его не нужно. Все, что необходимо это периодически заходить в облако и забирать накопившуюся прибыль.

Самым популярным и надежным сервисом облачного майнинга является IQMining, есть и другие сервисы, но ручаться за их надежность достаточно сложно.

Эмиссия крипритовалюты ETH не ограниченна, поэтому добыча может продолжатся вечно, но разработчики неоднократно озвучивали планы по переходу с традиционного POW-майнинга (доказательство работы) на POS (доказательство владения). Чем отличается эти алгоритмы защиты криптосистемы тема отдельной статьи, но, а если объяснить кратко, то переход на POS обозначает завершения майнинга на любом оборудовании.

Для получения новых монет понадобится только компьютер с локальным кошельком и чем «толще» будет кошелек, тем продуктивнее POS-майнинг. На первом этапе будет работать комбинированная система и определенная доля выработки останется под контролем POW, а другая часть будет отдана валидаторам. Регламент перехода с Proof-of-Work на Proof-of-Stake и все особенности форжинга эфириума, содержит обновленный алгоритм Casper, на котором будет работать сеть Ethereum 2.0.

Впрочем, конкретные сроки никому не известны, а пока криптовалюта Ethereum является одной из самых выгодных для владельцев GPU-ригов и контрактов на аренду мощности в облачном сервисе.


Tangerine Whistle

A of the Ethereum blockchain, which occurred at block 2,463,000 to change the calculation for certain I/O-intensive operations and to clear the accumulated state from a denial-of-service attack, which exploited the low gas cost of those operations.

token standard

Introduced by ERC-20 proposal, this provides a standardized structure for fungible tokens. Tokens from the same contract can be tracked, traded, and are interchangeable, unlike .

ERC-20 Token Standard


Data committed to the Ethereum Blockchain signed by an originating , targeting a specific . The transaction contains metadata such as the for that transaction.


transaction fee

A fee you need to pay whenever you use the Ethereum network. Examples include sending funds from your or a interaction, like swapping tokens or buying a collectible. You can think of this like a service charge. This fee will change based on how busy the network is. This is because , the people responsible for processing your transaction, are likely to prioritise transactions with higher fees – so congestion forces the price up.

At a technical level, your transaction fee relates to how much your transaction requires.

Reducing transaction fees is a subject of intense interest right now. See

Turing complete

A concept named after English mathematician and computer scientist Alan Turing- a system of data-manipulation rules (such as a computer’s instruction set, a programming language, or a cellular automaton) is said to be «Turing complete» or «computationally universal» if it can be used to simulate any Turing machine.

The magic behind decentralized finance

Open access

Financial services running on Ethereum have no sign up requirements. If you have funds and an internet connection, you’re good to go.

A new token economy

There’s a whole world of tokens that you can interact with across these financial products. People are building new tokens on top of Ethereum all the time.


Teams have built stablecoins – a less volatile cryptocurrency. These allow you to experiment and use crypto without the risk and uncertainty.

Interconnected financial services

Financial products in the Ethereum space are all modular and compatible with one another. New configurations of these modules are hitting the market all the time, increasing what you can do with your crypto.



An off-chain scaling solution that uses , like . Plasma is limited to simple transactions like basic token transfers and swaps.


private key (secret key)

A secret number that allows Ethereum users to prove ownership of an account or contracts, by producing a digital signature (see , , ).

proof of stake (PoS)

A method by which a cryptocurrency blockchain protocol aims to achieve distributed . PoS asks users to prove ownership of a certain amount of cryptocurrency (their «stake» in the network) in order to be able to participate in the validation of transactions.

Proof of stake

proof of work (PoW)

A piece of data (the proof) that requires significant computation to find. In Ethereum, must find a numeric solution to the algorithm that meets a network-wide target.

Proof of work

public key

A number, derived via a one-way function from a , which can be shared publicly and used by anyone to verify a digital signature made with the corresponding private key.

Что такое и зачем нужен Ethereum 2.0

Ethereum 2.0, также известный как ETH 2.0 или Serenity — апгрейд блокчейна крупнейшей криптовалюты после Биткоина. Задачей обновления является улучшения эффективности, скорости и масштабируемости сети Эфириума, благодаря чему последняя сможет справляться со значительно большим количеством транзакций за единицу времени.

Главное отличие Ethereum 2.0 от нынешней версии сети — механизм консенсуса, то есть то, каким образом ноды достигают согласия относительно актуальной версии блокчейна и добавления блоков. Сейчас сеть Эфириума использует Proof-of-Work, который подразумевает проведение сложных вычислений видеокартами и другим оборудованием. Кто первый подберёт правильное решение для добавления нового блока в сеть, тот и получит награду.

Proof-of-Work требует огромных затрат электроэнергии. Как считают майнеры, именно это обеспечивает безопасность ETH и делает сеть криптовалюты ценной.


Proof-of-Stake значительно отличается от нынешнего механизма консенсуса. Вместо майнеров с видеокартами в PoS подтверждать транзакции и добавлять блоки в сеть будут так называемые валидаторы. Чтобы стать одним из них и получить право подтверждать валидность транзакций, нужно заблокировать в специальном депозитном контракте 32 ETH, то есть отправить его в так называемый стейк. По нынешнему курсу это приблизительно 16 тысяч долларов.

Задача остальных валидаторов в это время — быть в онлайне и подтвердить, что они видят этот блок и соглашаются с ним. Когда набирается достаточно подтверждений, блок добавляется в цепочку, причём данный процесс называется форджингом или минтингом. Соответственно, транзакции проводятся, сеть выполняет своё предназначение, а криптовалюта доходит до нужных рук или смарт-контрактов.


Ключевым преимуществом механизма Proof-of-Stake является энергоэффективность, ведь для работы и безопасности не нужны огромные мощности сотен тысяч видеокарт. Вдобавок сеть сможет справляться с огромным количеством транзакций. Если сейчас Ethereum проводит около 30 переводов в секунду, обновлённая версия блокчейна на PoS сможет справиться со 100 тысячами операций. А это открывает перед сетью огромные возможности — в том числе для массового применения блокчейна в различных сферах.

Когда запустится нулевая фаза Ethereum 2.0

Как мы уже отметили, дебютный этап перехода Эфириума на Proof-of-Stake стартует первого декабря этого года. Для этого участники сети должны были собрать как минимум 16 384 стейка по 32 эфира каждый. Всего получается 524 288 ETH.

Объём криптовалюты в депозитном контракте Ethereum 2.0

Для стейкинга использовался специальный депозитный контракт. О его запуске лидер проекта Виталик Бутерин объявил четвёртого ноября этого года. Для своевременного запуска нулевой фазы собрать сумму нужно было за неделю до первого декабря — то есть до 24 ноября. Получается, что поклонники проекта собрали более полумиллиона эфиров меньше чем за три недели.

Твит Виталика Бутерина о запуске депозитного контракта Ethereum 2.0

Public vs private Ethereum

There is only one public Ethereum Mainnet. Applications that are built on the Mainnet are able to interoperate, similarly to how applications built on the Internet can connect to each other, leveraging the full potential of decentralized blockchain.

Many businesses and consortia have deployed private, permissioned blockchains for specific applications based on Ethereum technology.

Key differences

  • Blockchain Security/Immutability — A blockchain’s resistance to tampering is determined by its consensus algorithm. Ethereum Mainnet is secured by the interaction of thousands of independent nodes run by individuals and miners throughout the world. Private chains typically have a small number of nodes which are controlled by one or a few organizations; those nodes can be tightly controlled, but only a few must be compromised in order to rewrite the chain or commit fraudulent transactions.
  • Performance — Because private Enterprise Ethereum chains may use high performance nodes with special hardware requirements and different consensus algorithms such as Proof of Authority, they may achieve higher transaction throughput on the base layer (Layer 1). On Ethereum Mainnet, high throughput can be achieved with the use of Layer 2 scaling solutions.
  • Cost — The cost to operate a private chain is primarily reflected in labor to set up and manage the chain, and the servers to run it. While there is no cost to connect to Ethereum Mainnet, there is a gas cost for every transaction which must be paid for in ether. Transaction relayers (aka Gas Stations) are being developed in order to eliminate the need for end users and even enterprises to directly use ether in their transactions. Some analyses have shown that the total cost to operate an application may be lower on Mainnet than running a private chain.
  • Node Permissioning — Only authorized nodes can join private chains. Anybody can set up a node on Ethereum Mainnet.
  • Privacy — Access to data written to private chains can be controlled by restricting access to the network, and on a more fine grained basis with access controls and private transactions. All data written to Mainnet Layer 1 is viewable by anyone, so sensitive information should be stored and transmitted off-chain, or else encrypted. Design patterns that facilitate this are emerging (e.g. Baseline, Aztec), as well as Layer 2 solutions that can keep data compartmentalized and off of Layer 1.

Why build on Ethereum Mainnet

Enterprises have been experimenting with blockchain technology since around 2016, when the Hyperledger, Quorum, and Corda projects were launched. The focus was largely on private permissioned enterprise blockchains, but starting in 2019 there has been a shift in thinking about public vs private blockchains for business applications. A survey conducted by Forrester revealed that “Survey respondents … see this potential, with 75% stating that they’re likely to leverage public blockchains in the future, and nearly one-third saying they’re very likely”. EY’s Paul Brody has talked about the benefits of building on public blockchain, which (depending on the application) may include stronger security/immutability, transparency, lower total cost of ownership, and the ability to interoperate with all of the other applications that are also on the Mainnet (network effects). Sharing a common frame of reference among businesses avoids the unnecessary creation of numerous isolated silos which cannot communicate and share or synchronize information with each other.

Another development which is shifting the focus toward public blockchains is Layer 2. Layer 2 is primarily a scalability technology category which makes high throughput applications possible on public chains. But Layer 2 solutions can also address some of the other challenges that have driven enterprise developers to choose private chains in the past.

The Baseline Protocol is one key project which is defining a protocol that enables confidential and complex collaboration between enterprises without leaving any sensitive data on-chain. It has gained significant momentum throughout 2020.

Выводы: каким будет будущее Эфириума

Судя по активности владельцев эфиров, проект действительно обновится до версии 2.0 и в итоге перейдёт на механизм консенсуса Proof-of-Stake. Впрочем, здесь возможна задержка со стороны разработчиков — всё же Эфириум является очень масштабным проектом, поэтому его апдейт в состоянии вызвать проблемы. А значит в теории возможны какие-то отклонения от заранее запланированных сроков.

Как бы там ни было, Ethereum 2.0 действительно сделает сеть более масштабируемой и безопасной. Она будет справляться с десятками тысяч транзакций в секунду, из-за чего проблемы высоких комиссий останутся в прошлом. Вдобавок блокчейн получится использовать в самых разных индустриях и не бояться возможных неполадок. Ну а растущий спрос в перспективе должен также положительно сказаться на курсе криптовалюты.

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